Database is a collection of data and Management System is a set of programs to store and retrieve those data. So we can define like this: DBMS is a collection of interrelated data and a set of programs to store & access those data in an easy and effective manner.
What is DBMS?
A database management system is a software application which is used for managing different databases. It helps us to create and manage the database. With the help of DBMS, we take care of following tasks –
1. Data Security
2. Data Backup
3. Manages the huge amount of data
4. Data export & import
5. Serving multiple concurrent database requests
6. Gives us a way to manage the data using programming languages.
Need of DBMS
Database systems are basically developed for a large amount of data. When dealing with huge amount of data, there are many things that require optimization-
- Storage of data
- retrieval of data
- Processing Queries and Object Management
Storage: According to the principles of database systems, the data is stored in such a way that it acquires a lot less space as the redundant data (duplicate data) has been removed before storage. Let’s take a simple banking example to understand this:
In a banking system, suppose a customer is having two accounts, one is saving account and another is salary account. Let’s say bank stores saving account data at one place (these places are called tables we will learn them later) and salary account data at another place, in that case, if the customer information such as customer name, address etc. are stored at both places then this is just a wastage of storage (redundancy/ duplication of data), to organize the data in a better way the information should be stored in one place and both the accounts should be linked to that information somehow. The same thing we achieve in DBMS.
Fast Retrieval of data: Along with storing the data in an optimized and systematic manner, it is also important that we retrieve the data quickly when needed. Database systems ensure that the data is retrieved as quickly as possible.
Applications of DBMS
The database is widely used. Some of the major applications are-
Banking: for customer information, accounts and loans and banking transactions.
Universities: It is widely used for student registrations and grades.
Online shopping: Everyone wants to shop from home. Every day new products are added and sold only with the help of DBMS. Purchase information, invoice bills, and payment, all of these are done with the help of DBMS.
Airlines: Store a large number of airline reservations and schedule information.
Credit card transactions: for purchases on credit cards and generation of monthly statements.
Library Management System: We can maintain all the information related to book issue dates, the name of the book, author and availability of the book.
Telecommunications: for keeping records of calls made, generating monthly bills, maintaining balances on prepaid calling cards.
Sales: for customer, product and purchase information.
Finance: Store information about holdings, sales, and purchases of financial instruments such as stocks and bonds.
Manufacturing: for management of supply chain and for tracking production of items in factories, inventories of items and orders for items.
Human Resource: for information about employees, salaries, payroll taxes, and benefits.
Advantages of DBMS
There are lots of advantages of the database management system, some are following-
- Improved Data sharing
- Controlling of Redundancy
- Data Security
- Data abstraction and independence
- Simple access using a standard application programming interface (API)
- Data Integrity
- Data Consistency
- Reduced Application development
- Reduced maintenance time
Disadvantages of DBMS
- Increased Complexity
- Increased cost
- Maintaining currency
- The requirement of New and Specialized Manpower
- Database can failure, corrupt
- Large Size of DBMS
- Extra cost of Hardware
- Requires lots of space