C is considered as a low-level language compared to other languages like Java, python etc. but, But you should remember that the c language is a “middle-level” programming language because it gives you abstraction over conditions, loops, functions and so on.
Apart from the benefits or features, it has many limitations, which are following:
- There is no runtime checking in C language, as the program extends it is very difficult to fix the bugs.
- C doesn’t have the concept of constructors and destructors.
- C Programming language doesn’t support object-oriented programming features, like inheritance, polymorphism, abstraction (data hiding), encapsulation, etc.
- It is a procedure-oriented language. In C, we have to implement any algorithms as a set of function calls.
- C doesn’t perform Run Time Type Checking. It only does compile-time type checking.
- C doesn’t have a concept of namespace like C++. Without Namespace, we cannot declare two variables of the same name.
- C doesn’t support the concept of constructors and destructors.
- It doesn’t provide data security.
- C doesn’t support reusability of source code.
- It doesn’t support generic programming.
- It doesn’t function with default arguments.
- It has no strict type checking.
What is Low-level Programming Language?
A low-level programming language refers to a programming language that provides little to no abstraction from a processor’s architecture set.
A low-level programming language is architecture specific, unlike high-level languages which are portable across platforms.
Due to little to no abstraction they provide, the programs written can be run quickly, with lesser use of memory than high-level languages.
Low-level languages directly deal with basic Arithmetic and Logical operations and registers. Hence they are said to be closer the hardware (i.e machine language) in question.
Low-level languages are designed to operate and handle the entire hardware and instructions set architecture of a computer directly.
- Direct memory management
- Little-to-no abstraction from the hardware
- Register access
- Statements usually have an obvious correspondence with clock cycles
- Superb performance
- Machine code or machine language
- Assembly language
Why C Middle-level language?
- C is often called a middle-level programming language because it supports the feature of both high-level and low-level language. C being a mid-level language doesn’t mean that it is less powerful or harder to use than any high-level language.
- C combines the best elements of a high-level language with the control and flexibility of low-level language(assembly language).
- Like assembly language or machine language, C provides support for manipulation of bits, bytes and memory pointers at the same time it provides abstraction over hardware access.
- Programming Supports Inline Assembly Language Programs.
- Using inline assembly language feature in C we can directly access system registers.
- C Programming is used to access memory directly using a pointer.
- C Programming also Supports high-Level Language Features.
- It is more User-friendly as compare to Previous languages so C programming is Middle-Level Language.
- Macro-assemble, etc.
Difference Between Low-level and High-level
Let’s see the quick difference between low-level and high-level programming language.
|High level langauge||Low level langauge|
|These are interpreted||Direct memory management|
|Poor performance||Faster than high level langauge|
|Flexible syntax and easy to read||Better performance but hard to write|
|This is not machine dependent||Machine dependent|
|It provides features of many built-in functions||Doesn't provide the features of built-in functions|
|Program execution is fast||Program execution is slow|
|Difficult to trace errors||Easy to trace errors|
|Strong abstraction from the details of the computer||provides little no abstraction from computer instruction set and architecture|
|High level are near to human langauge||low level are far from human langauge|
|For example, Python, ruby, SQL, C#, Ada , Modula-2 , Pascal, COBOL, FORTRAN, BASIC, etc.||For example, Machine code language, assembly language, Forth, etc.|